Mac のターミナルで htpasswd の中身を生成する

ターミナルで htpasswd の中身を生成できると知ったので調べてみるなっしー。まずはヘルプを表示。

$ htpasswd -h
	htpasswd [-cmdpsD] passwordfile username
	htpasswd -b[cmdpsD] passwordfile username password

	htpasswd -n[mdps] username
	htpasswd -nb[mdps] username password
 -c  Create a new file.
 -n  Don't update file; display results on stdout.
 -m  Force MD5 encryption of the password (default).
 -d  Force CRYPT encryption of the password.
 -p  Do not encrypt the password (plaintext).
 -s  Force SHA encryption of the password.
 -b  Use the password from the command line rather than prompting for it.
 -D  Delete the specified user.
On other systems than Windows, NetWare and TPF the '-p' flag will probably not work.
The SHA algorithm does not use a salt and is less secure than the MD5 algorithm.

覚えたての man やってみる。

$ man htpasswd

       htpasswd - Manage user files for basic authentication

       htpasswd [ -c ] [ -m ] [ -D ] passwdfile username

       htpasswd  -b  [  -c  ] [ -m | -d | -p | -s ] [ -D ] passwdfile username

       htpasswd -n [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username

       htpasswd -nb [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username password

       htpasswd is used to create and update  the  flat-files  used  to  store
       usernames  and  password  for  basic  authentication  of HTTP users. If
       htpasswd cannot access a file, such as not being able to write  to  the
       output  file  or not being able to read the file in order to update it,
       it returns an error status and makes no changes.

       Resources available from the Apache HTTP server can  be  restricted  to
       just  the  users  listed in the files created by htpasswd. This program
       can only manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file.  It  can
       encrypt and display password information for use in other types of data
       stores, though. To use a DBM database see dbmmanage.

       htpasswd encrypts passwords using either a version of MD5 modified  for
       Apache,  or the system's crypt() routine. Files managed by htpasswd may
       contain  both  types  of  passwords;  some  user   records   may   have
       MD5-encrypted  passwords  while  others in the same file may have pass-
       words encrypted with crypt().

       This manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details  of
       the  directives necessary to configure user authentication in httpd see
       the Apache manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or  can  be
       found at

       -b     Use  batch  mode;  i.e.,  get the password from the command line
              rather than prompting for it. This option should  be  used  with
              extreme  care, since the password is clearly visible on the com-
              mand line.

       -c     Create the passwdfile.  If  passwdfile  already  exists,  it  is
              rewritten and truncated. This option cannot be combined with the
              -n option.

       -n     Display the results on standard output rather  than  updating  a
              file.  This is useful for generating password records acceptable
              to Apache for inclusion in non-text  data  stores.  This  option
              changes  the  syntax  of  the command line, since the passwdfile
              argument (usually the first one) is omitted. It cannot  be  com-
              bined with the -c option.

       -m     Use  MD5  encryption  for  passwords. This is the default (since
              version 2.2.18).

       -d     Use crypt() encryption for passwords. This is not  supported  by
              the  httpd server on Windows and Netware and TPF. This algorithm
              limits the password length to 8 characters.  This  algorithm  is
              insecure  by  today's standards. It used to be the default algo-
              rithm until version 2.2.17.

       -s     Use SHA encryption for passwords. Facilitates migration  from/to
              Netscape  servers  using  the  LDAP Directory Interchange Format

       -p     Use plaintext passwords. Though htpasswd will  support  creation
              on  all  platforms, the httpd daemon will only accept plain text
              passwords on Windows, Netware and TPF.

       -D     Delete user. If the username exists in  the  specified  htpasswd
              file, it will be deleted.

              Name of the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is
              given, this file is created if it does  not  already  exist,  or
              rewritten and truncated if it does exist.

              The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username does
              not exist in this file, an entry is added. If it does exist, the
              password is changed.

              The  plaintext  password to be encrypted and stored in the file.
              Only used with the -b flag.

       htpasswd returns a zero status ("true") if the  username  and  password
       have  been  successfully  added  or updated in the passwdfile. htpasswd
       returns 1 if it encounters some problem accessing files, 2 if there was
       a  syntax  problem with the command line, 3 if the password was entered
       interactively and the verification entry didn't match, 4 if its  opera-
       tion  was  interrupted,  5  if a value is too long (username, filename,
       password, or final computed record), 6 if the username contains illegal
       characters  (see  the Restrictions section), and 7 if the file is not a
       valid password file.

             htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith

       Adds or modifies the password for user jsmith. The user is prompted for
       the  password. The password will be encrypted using the modified Apache
       MD5 algorithm. If the file does not exist,  htpasswd  will  do  nothing
       except return an error.

             htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane

       Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user jane. The user is
       prompted for the password. If the file exists and cannot  be  read,  or
       cannot  be  written, it is not altered and htpasswd will display a mes-
       sage and return an error status.

             htpasswd -db /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve

       Encrypts the password from  the  command  line  (Pwd4Steve)  using  the
       crypt() algorithm, and stores it in the specified file.

       Web  password  files  such  as  those managed by htpasswd should not be
       within the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should not be fetch-
       able with a browser.

       This program is not safe as a setuid executable. Do not make it setuid.

       The use of the -b option is discouraged, since  when  it  is  used  the
       unencrypted password appears on the command line.

       When using the crypt() algorithm, note that only the first 8 characters
       of the password are used to form the password. If the supplied password
       is longer, the extra characters will be silently discarded.

       The  SHA  encryption format does not use salting: for a given password,
       there is only one encrypted representation. The crypt() and MD5 formats
       permute  the representation by prepending a random salt string, to make
       dictionary attacks against the passwords more difficult.

       On the Windows and MPE platforms, passwords encrypted with htpasswd are
       limited to no more than 255 characters in length. Longer passwords will
       be truncated to 255 characters.

       The MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd is specific to the Apache  software;
       passwords encrypted using it will not be usable with other Web servers.

       Usernames are limited to 255 bytes and may not include the character :.


すでに .htpasswd ファイルが存在していて、ユーザとパスワードを追記したいのでファイルの出力はなしにします。オプションは -n

$ htpasswd -n (ユーザ名)

これだけだと見えないパスワード入力欄が出てきてパスワードの入力を求められるので、オプション -nb を使います。こちらは入力したパスワードが丸見えなので注意が必要。

$ htpasswd -nb (ユーザ名) (パスワード)

こんなかんじに出力されるので、2 行目をコピーして .htpasswd に貼り付ければ完了!

$ htpasswd -nb username password


メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。 * が付いている欄は必須項目です